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Monday, August 3, 2020 | History

1 edition of Using emissions trading to reduce ground-level ozone in Canada found in the catalog.

Using emissions trading to reduce ground-level ozone in Canada

Using emissions trading to reduce ground-level ozone in Canada

a feasibility analysis

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  • 4 Currently reading

Published by National Economic Research Associates in Cambridge, Mass .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Air -- Pollution -- Standards -- Canada.,
  • Air -- Pollution -- Canada.,
  • Air quality management -- Canada.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementNational Economic Research Associates.
    ContributionsCanada. Environment Canada., National Economic Research Associates.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsTD171.5.C3 U7 1990
    The Physical Object
    Pagination180, [68] p.
    Number of Pages180
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL17126524M

    Canada-United States Emissions Cap and Trading Fe TAX CONSEQUENCES 73 E THE U.S. EXPERIENCE WITH ALLOWANCE USE 73 E.I3 SUMMARY 77 Section F: Electronic Emissions Trading Registry: Data Systems for Tracking Allowances and Emissions 79 F.I PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING AN ELECTRONIC REGISTRY 79 F.2 COMPONENTS OF THE REGISTRY 80 F.3 . Pros of Emissions Trading or Cap and Trade program: Pros: 35% reduction in SO2 between and , results occurred at 1/10 the cost projected by industry, billion dollar benefit in health and visibility for 2 billion.

      Trading programs have been successfully used to significantly and economically reduce other emissions, including nitrogen oxide (NOx), which is associated with ground level ozone, or smog. In March, the EPA issued new mercury regulations that would require PSNH to reduce its annual mercury emissions by more than 60 percent by , from It can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. Ground level ozone also can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs. Repeated exposure may permanently scar lung tissue. People with lung disease, children, older adults, and people who are active outdoors may be particularly sensitive to ozone.

    Nichols, A. L. and David Harrison, Jr. () Key Issues in the Design of NOx Emission Trading Programs to Reduce Ground-Level Ozone. Document n° TR, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA. Google Scholar. California. California established the AB 32 Scoping Plan as one of its main strategies to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ramp up clean energy. This cap and trade program will help put California on the path to meet its goal of reducing emissions to levels by the year , and ultimately achieving an 80 percent reduction from levels by


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Using emissions trading to reduce ground-level ozone in Canada Download PDF EPUB FB2

Using Emissions Trading to Reduce Ground-Level Ozone in Canada: A Feasibility Analysis, National Economic Research Associates, Cambridge () Google Scholar 19Cited by: Using Emissions Trading to Reduce Ground-Level Ozone in Canada: A Feasibility Analysis.

Final Report prepared for Environment Canada. National Economic Research Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

Google ScholarAuthor: Elke Staehelin-Witt. Using control measures and strategies associated with rules such as Mobile Source Air Toxics to reduce air emissions, can help states to meet ground-level ozone pollution standards.

Jump to main content. An official website of the United States government. We've made some changes to EPA. Using Emissions Trading to Reduce Ground-Level Ozone in Canada: A Feasibility Analysis, To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please Author: Stuart Mestelman and Andrew Muller.

ground-level ozone, specifically by cutting precursor sion trading to reduce emissions from large stationary. sources. so the leakage of emissions into Canada is not a major concern. Ozone can impact the ability of sensitive plants to produce and store food, and can reduce forest growth and crop yields, both of which can, in turn, reduce ecosystem diversity.

In Canada both emissions of PM and ozone remain a problem, for example, PM and ozone levels in many cities are consistently above the CanadaWide Standard (CWS) Ozone is a naturally occurring gas that is present in the upper atmosphere.

It is necessary for life on earth. The ozone layer keeps the planet warm and protects us from the sun's ultraviolet rays.

Ozone can also be formed at ground level when sunlight interacts with pollution. This type of ozone (ground-level ozone) is a key component in urban. Use environmentally safe paints, cleaning and office products (some of these chemicals are sources of VOC).

Conserve energy. Besides personal attempts to reduce ozone pollution, the EPA has initiated more stringent air-quality standards (such as the Clean Air Act and its modifications) to reduce.

Ground-level ozone is a colorless and highly irritating gas that forms just above the earth's surface. It is called a "secondary" pollutant because it is produced when two primary pollutants react in sunlight and stagnant air. These two primary pollutants are nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

NOx and VOCs come from natural sources as well as human activities. This paper examines the ozone (O3) damages caused by nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in different locations around the Atlanta metropolitan area during a summer month. We calculate O3 impacts using a new integrated assessment model that links pollution emissions to their chemical transformation, transport, population exposures, and effects on human health.

We find that increased NOx emissions. The regional ozone increase mainly stems from the advection of ozone at Europe’s boundaries, themselves due to high global methane concentrations associated with the RCP emission scenario.

For example, trading NO x and non-methane VOCs may lead to an overall cost-effective reduction but may significantly increase ground-level ozone in certain densely populated areas.

Reducing NO x or SO 2 from power plants may lead to an increase in CO 2 emissions due to the installation of secondary emission-control facilities, such as wet. Emissions of the main tropospheric (ground-level) ozone precursors reduced across the EEA region between and (Figure 1).

The different precursor species contribute to ground-level ozone formation to differing extents, but in general NO X and NMVOC are considered the most important precursor species.

In most countries, reductions in emissions have occurred since for both of. # Reducing NOx will significantly reduce ground-level ozone across the eastern U.S.

Ground-level ozone is not emitted directly into the atmosphere. It is formed when emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds react in the presence of sunlight. While beneficial in the upper atmosphere, ozone in the lower atmosphere can cause a. Emissions trading is a market-based approach to controlling pollution.

By creating tradable pollution permits it attempts to add the profit motive as. Emissions trading (also known as cap and trade) is a market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. A central authority (usually a governmental body) allocates or sells a limited number of permits to discharge specific quantities of a specific pollutant per time period.

When weighted by population, levels of ground level ozone in certain regions in Canada. have risen between 11 and 16 per cent (depending on the region) in the past 18 years. At the local level, air pollution also remains a challenge.

For example, PM and ozone levels in many cities are consistently above the Canada-Wide Standards (CWS). (The. @article{osti_, title = {Key issues in the design of NO{sub x} emission trading programs to reduce ground-level ozone.

Final report}, author = {Nichols, A and Harrison, D}, abstractNote = {This report is the first product of a study being conducted by National Economic Research Associates for the Electric Power Research Institute to evaluate various market-based alternatives for.

The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

The Ontario GHG emissions trading scheme applies to natural gas distributors and industrial emitters that e metric tons or more of CO 2-equivalent, fuel supplies that supply liters or more of petroleum products, and electricity importers who frst import electricity into Ontario for consumption in cases where generation facilities.

Total regional emissions in were approximately 60 percent below levels. Daily peak emissions have also declined. NOx is a prime ingredient in the formation of ground-level ozone, (smog). SinceEPA has had success reducing acid rain through a national cap and trade strategy to control sulfur dioxide emissions.A major component of urban smog, ground-level ozone pollution in Canada has increased in the past decade, in part because of the continuing urban expansion and increasing automobile use.

Infor example, the Ontario ozone standard of 80 parts per billion (ppb) was exceeded nearly 7, times – for periods ranging from hours to several.Ozone pollution near Earth’s surface is one of the main ingredients of summertime smog and a primary cause of poor air quality.

Yet it is not directly measurable from space because of the abundance of ozone higher in the atmosphere, which obscures measurements of surface NASA-funded researchers have devised a way to use satellites to measure the precursor gases that contribute to.